27 novembro 2006

Para Que Serve O Estado

A Nova Democracia lançou, em momento que não podia ser mais oportuno, a questão de saber se o Estado que temos nos serve …

A Nova Democracia lançou, em momento que não podia ser mais oportuno, a questão de saber se o Estado que temos nos serve, ou seja, se cumpre as suas funções e se as funções que assumiu são excessivas ou faz sentido alargá-las, ou diminuindo-as, quais as que devem permanecer sob a competência estadual e quais as que devem ser devolvidas à sociedade.

Convém recordar que na origem está o Homem e não o Estado e que este surgiu apenas para assegurar às comunidades um conjunto mínimo de funções que seriam melhor garantidas se exercidas de modo colectivo.

Com os tempos, as funções do Estado foram aumentando até atingirem as proporções que actualmente lhe conhecemos.

E se é verdade que algumas delas resultam de preocupações colectivas recentes, como seja a protecção do ambiente, o ordenamento do território ou a defesa do consumidor (que integram “adendas” ao contrato social celebrado entre os indivíduos e o Estado), também é verdade que muitas outras já há muito que deviam ter saído do foro de intervenção estatal.

Esta constatação é verdadeira tanto no nível da Administração Pública Central como no nível da Administração Pública Local.

Basta olhar em redor para nos apercebermos que o Estado é hoje bem maior do que há 30 anos e isso é demonstrável qualquer que seja a perspectiva da análise.
À conta de tanto crescer, o Estado descurou a qualidade com que exerce as funções que estiveram na sua origem ou que lhe foram posteriormente atribuídas nas sucessivas “adendas” ao contrato social.

É assim que a Segurança das comunidades está cada vez mais posta em causa, o rastreio do que pode entrar pelas fronteiras dentro deixou de existir, o Ambiente sofre atentados diários, o Território já não tem ordenamento possível e os Consumidores estão à mercê das fusões.

Ao mesmo tempo, caiu-se na tendência para o proibicionismo, face visível de um Estado que teima em ser protector, mesmo que os protegidos queiram dispensar a protecção.

O mais grave é que este espírito persecutório é uma imposição externa, oriunda de Bruxelas, onde muitos passam o seu tempo a imaginar formas de tornar as nossas vidas cada vez mais igualitárias, como se a diferença fosse pecado.

Na área do Ambiente existem também os fundamentalismos inspirados nas teorias proteccionistas, aplicadas indistintamente, sem respeito pelas pessoas que ancestralmente usufruem dos espaços e policiados por técnicos que do ambiente conhecem apenas o que aprenderam nas faculdades urbanas.

Sem esquecer que nesta matéria vigora a regra dos dois pesos e duas medidas: uma que se aplica aos grandes interesses imobiliários e a quem está especialmente bem relacionado e que, muitas das vezes, perante um concreto projecto, abre a porta que a lei fecha e a outra que se aplica ao comum dos mortais e que os impede de qualquer aproveitamento urbanístico das suas propriedades.

A verdade é que existe alternativa ao Estado omnipresente e omnipotente.

Há um conjunto vasto de funções que o Estado actualmente exerce mal, mesmo muito mal e que deveria abandonar para se poder concentrar nas que por natureza lhe cabem, assim as desempenhando com mais qualidade e porventura com menores encargos para os cidadãos.

Devo dizer que mesmo nas chamadas funções soberanas (Justiça, Segurança, por exemplo), o Estado há muito se demitiu de as exercer por inteiro. Na área da Justiça temos os Tribunais Arbitrais e os Solicitadores de Execução que representam, de certo modo, a privatização daquela função. Na área da Segurança temos os serviços de segurança privada, que também são disso exemplo.

Noutras áreas, onde o Estado se propôs intervir, os resultados são calamitosos. Estou a lembrar-me da protecção de menores carenciados ou em risco, de que o processo da Casa Pia e a ineficiência de muitas das chamadas Comissões de Protecção de Menores são exemplos chocantes. Ao invés, onde o Estado deveria recuar é onde o vemos a avançar.

Ao mesmo tempo que deve diminuir o seu peso e a sua presença, o estado deve fomentar a cultura da responsabilidade dos seus agentes, de forma a que se acabe com a impunidade de quem erra, por acção ou omissão, sem que daí lhe advenham quaisquer consequências.

Em suma, só reduzindo e responsabilizando o Estado é que os indivíduos voltam a acreditar no ente a quem confiaram o desempenho das funções inerentes à Nação e à vida em sociedade.
Gonçalo Ribeiro da Costa
In Nova Vaga, nº 6

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